A large portion of our grade for my class is based on group projects. One person on my team has taken a free ride on the hard work of the rest of us. We’ve already turned in our final papers, so telling the professor would have no practical purpose, but it might teach this guy a lesson. Should I rat him out? —K.F., OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA   

Rat away right away, not to teach the guy a lesson but to give your professor an honest account of how the project was accomplished. It’s misleading to include this student among those who did the work if he didn’t. And next time, speak to your teacher when the problem first emerges. I consulted a business professor who said, “One of the explicit benefits of working in groups is that it forces students to confront these and other management issues.”

—Adapted from “The Ethicist” in The New York Times Magazine