Explore key data points about the world’s 196 countries, including population stats, political systems, languages, GDP, and more.

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1. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a collective presidency that alternates among three members (one Croat, one Bosnian Muslim, and one Serb).
2. Czechia is now the official short-form name of the Czech Republic.
3. Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in 2008. As of May 2021, it had been recognized by more than 100 countries, including the U.S.
4. Formerly Macedonia.
5. Statistics don't include Crimea (estimated population: 2 million), which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014.
6. Formerly Swaziland
7. Statistics don't include Hong Kong and Macau
8. Statistics don't include the separate Turkish Cypriot–controlled area in the north
9. Statistics don't include the West Bank
10. Dodoma is set to become the sole capital in the near future.
Area: Encyclopedia Britannica
Population, urban population, percentage of population under 15, annual population increase, life expectancy: Toshiko Kaneda, Charlotte Greenbaum, and Kelley Kline, 2020 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2020)
Capital, date of origin, literacy rate, per capita GDP: The World Factbook (C.I.A.)
Languages: The World Factbook (C.I.A.); World Book Encyclopedia
Political system: Based on information from Freedom House (a nonprofit human rights organization) and its annual publication, Freedom in the World (2020); Encyclopedia Britannica; and news accounts
Head of government (as of August 2021): Based on information from the GeoCities “Rulers” website (rulers.org); The World Factbook (C.I.A.); and news accounts
HDI: Human Development Report 2020 (United Nations Development Program)
All figures are the latest available from each source for each country; all information is as of May 2021 unless otherwise noted.